's level limits the number of spells she can prepare and cast. Her high Intelligence score might allow her to prepare a few extra spells. She can prepare the same spell more than once, but each preparation counts as one spell toward her daily limit. To prepare a spell the wizard
must have an Intelligence score of at least 10 + the spell's level.
To prepare her daily spells, a wizard
must first sleep
for 8 hours. The wizard
does not have to slumber for every minute of the time, but she must refrain from movement
, combat, spellcasting, skill use, conversation, or any other fairly demanding physical or mental task during the rest
period. If her rest
is interrupted, each interruption adds 1 hour to the total amount of time she has to rest
in order to clear her mind, and she must have at least 1 hour of uninterrupted rest
immediately prior to preparing her spells. If the character does not need to sleep
for some reason, she still must have 8 hours of restful calm before preparing any spells.
Recent Casting Limit/Rest Interruptions:
If a wizard
has cast spells recently, the drain on her resources reduces her capacity to prepare new spells. When she prepares spells for the coming day, all the spells she has cast within the last 8 hours count against her daily limit.
To prepare any spell, a wizard
must have enough peace, quiet, and comfort to allow for proper concentration
. The wizard
's surroundings need not be luxurious, but they must be free from overt distractions. Exposure to inclement weather
prevents the necessary concentration
, as does any injury or failed saving throw
the character might experience while studying. Wizards also must have access to their spellbooks to study from and sufficient light
to read them by. There is one major exception: A wizard
can prepare a read magic
spell even without a spellbook.
Spell Preparation Time:
After resting, a wizard
must study her spellbook to prepare any spells that day. If she wants to prepare all her spells, the process takes 1 hour. Preparing some smaller portion of her daily capacity takes a proportionally smaller amount of time, but always at least 15 minutes, the minimum time required to achieve the proper mental state.
Spell Selection and Preparation:
Until she prepares spells from her spellbook, the only spells a wizard
has available to cast are the ones that she already had prepared from the previous day and has not yet used. During the study period, she chooses which spells to prepare. If a wizard
already has spells prepared (from the previous day) that she has not cast, she can abandon some or all of them to make room
for new spells.
When preparing spells for the day, a wizard
can leave some of these spell slots
open. Later during that day, she can repeat the preparation process as often as she likes, time and circumstances permitting. During these extra sessions of preparation, the wizard
can fill these unused spell slots
. She cannot, however, abandon a previously prepared spell to replace it with another one or fill a slot that is empty because she has cast a spell in the meantime. That sort of preparation requires a mind fresh from rest
. Like the first session of the day, this preparation takes at least 15 minutes, and it takes longer if the wizard
prepares more than one-quarter of her spells.
The various character class tables show how many spells of each level a character can cast per day. These openings for daily spells are called spell slots
. A spellcaster always has the option to fill a higher-level spell slot
with a lower-level spell. A spellcaster who lacks a high enough ability score to cast spells that would otherwise be his or her due still gets the slots but must fill them with spells of lower level.
Prepared Spell Retention:
Once a wizard
prepares a spell, it remains in her mind as a nearly cast spell until she uses the prescribed components to complete and trigger it or until she abandons it. Certain other events, such as the effects of magic items or special attacks
from monsters, can wipe a prepared spell from a character's mind.
Death and Prepared Spell Retention:
If a spellcaster dies, all prepared spells stored in his or her mind are wiped away. Potent magic (such as raise dead, resurrection,
or true resurrection
) can recover the lost energy when it recovers the character.
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